Texts in Khafos

Introduction | The Tower Of Babel | The Dolls | The North Wind and the Sun | The Peasant and the Eagle | The Lion In Love

Introduction

This is a collection of several short texts in Khafos. All are translations from English texts, unless otherwise noted. The Khafos translation and the English source are shown side-by-side, and a morpheme-by-morpheme gloss of the Khafos follows. The English version of each line in the latter section is a more literal rendering of the Khafos. The following symbols and abbreviations are used in the glosses.

- Morpheme boundary
= Clitic boundary
. Boundary between multiple elements that correspond to one
X1, X2 Separate parts of a single morpheme
1-6 Person-marking prefix or suffix
Cir Circumstantial voice suffix
Cnj Conjunctive suffix
Cns Construct suffix
DO Direct object-marking suffix or enclitic
DDO Demoted direct object-indicating postposition
F Future tense suffix
Id Identity-marking enclitic
Im Imperative suffix
IO Indirect object-marking suffix or enclitic
L Interfix linking two person/number suffixes
N Nonassertive prefix or infix
P Plural suffix
PN Proper noun-indicating particle
Pos Possessive postposition
Pst Past tense suffix
Psv Passive voice suffix
R Reduplication
S Subject-marking enclitic
Sub Subjunctive suffix

The Tower of Babel

The story of the tower of Babel, from Genesis 11:1-9. Both the Khafos and English are my translations from the original Hebrew.

vavel gely mastolol-shy

telte ievyl logosht epe safol lemek sovowh-vy. ehileshket ganlo shes kho lafa lheveshket geh shinar entril glih, vy khejishket iy glill. “shanlotonh iystsetenkhef herelenh,” tenishteshk. shanlo hnushohosht evne vy karonto hnushohosht vazolo. “vammotoglanh llileh, vy mastolono-jos khelneshfe siltyne linellywef, vy khinzetenh llileh, wa tumna jelehesrenkhen telte ievyl klas,” tenishket. helime sulto lirsest we vammo mastolo-vy pek toglashkotuhkof mafaglanwon, vy helime “epe-lesh permegeh vy teltek epe-les safogoshk, vy ka-jos torsoshk, elly pyiytregenkhen shinmeneshken teieltenel tonoshkonwof shashk? sulto lirsenh ne safo-lash llomoronkhon, we taianjonshonushk safo hosh,” tenist. vy helime jeleheresteshk iy shell telte ievyl klah vy najashkot vammotoglanoshkon. elly vammo geh vavel fongallot, sho iy telte ievy tesh safo-las llomorogoht helime, vy telte-lashk jeleheregeht helime sheh telte ievyl klah.

The Tower of Babel

The whole world had one language and the same words. As they traveled from the east, they found a valley in the land of Shinar, and settled there. “Let’s make bricks and burn them thoroughly,” they said to each other. Bricks served for them as stone, and bitumen served for them as mortar. And they said, “Let’s build a city for ourselves, and let’s build a tower with its top in the sky, and let’s make a name for ourselves, lest we become scattered all over the world.” God came done to see the city and the tower that the people had built, and God said, “Here’s one people with one language for all, and this is what they’ve begun to do, and now should nothing they propose to do be beyond them? Let’s go down and confuse their language, so one will not understand the language of the other.” And God scattered them from there all over the world, and they stopped building the city. Therefore it was called Babel, because there God confused the whole world’s language, and from there God scattered them all over the world.

vavelBabel
gelyat.PN
mastolo-l=sh-ytower-Cns=3-s

‘The Tower of Babel’

teltewhole
ievy-lworld-Cns
lo-go-sh-tbe-Cir-3-Pst
epeone
safo-llanguage-Cns
leme-ksame-P
sovo-w-h=vy.word-Cns-P=and

‘For the whole world there was one language and the same words.’

ehile-sh-k-ettravel-3-P-Pst
ganloeast
she-sfrom-4
khoas
lafavalley
lheve-sh-k-etcome.upon-3-P-Pst
ge-hPN-6
shinarShinar
entri-lland-Cns
gli-hat-6
vyand
kheji-sh-k-etsettle-3-P-Pst
iythere
gli-ll.at-5

‘While they were traveling from the east, they came upon a valley in the land of Shinar and settled there.’

“shanlo-to-n-hmake.brick-Sub-1.P
iystsete-n-kh-efbe.thorough-Sub-1.P-Cnj
herele-n-h,”burn-Sub-1.P
teni-sh-t-e-sh-k.say-3-Pst-IO-3-P

‘“Let’s make bricks and burn them thoroughly,” they said.’

shanlobrick
hnu-sh-oho-sh-tbe.instead.of.Psv-3-Psv-3-Pst
evnestone
vyand
karontobitumen
hnu-sh-oho-sh-tbe.instead.of.Psv-3-Psv-3-Pst
vazolo.mortar

‘Bricks served for them as stone and bitumen served for them as mortar.’

"vammotogla-n-hbuild.city-Sub-1.P
llile-h,for-1.P
vyand
mastolo-no=jo-stower-Sub=DO-4
khelneshfesky
silty-netop-Sub
li-ne-ll-y-w-ef,be.at.Psv-Sub-5-DO-4-Cnj

‘“Let’s build a city for ourselves, and a tower whose top is in the sky.’

vyand
khinzete-n-hmake.name-Sub-1.P
llile-h,for-1.P
wa.tumnalest
jelehesre-n-kh-enbecome.scattered-Sub-1.P-F
teltewhole
ievy-lworld-Cns
kla-s,"to-4
teni-sh-k-et.say-3-P-Pst

‘and make a name for ourselves, lest be become scattered all over the word,” they said.’

helimeGod
sultobottom
lirse-s-tgo-4-Pst
wein.order
vammocity
mastolo=vytower=and
pe-kperson-P
togla-sh-k-ot-u-h-k-ofbuild-3-P-Pst-DO-6-P-Cnj
mafagla-n-w-on,see-Sub-4-F

‘God came down to see the city and the tower that the people had built,’

vyand
helimeGod
“epe=le-shone=Id-3
perme-ge-hbe.people-Cir-6
vyand
telte-kall-P
epe=le-sone=Id-4
safo-go-sh-k,be.language-Cir-3-P
vyand
ka=jo-sthis=DO-4
torso-sh-k,start.to.do-3-P

‘and God ... “There’s one people, and for everyone one language, and this they’re beginning to do,’

ellyso
py-iy-tre-ge-n-kh-enbe.impossible1-N-be.impossible2-Cir-Sub-6-F
shinme-ne-sh-k-entry-Sub-3-P-F
te-ie-lte-ne-leverything1-N-everything2-Sub-Cns
to-no-sh-k-on-w-ofdo-Sub-3-P-F-DO.4-Cnj
sha-sh-k?by-3-P

‘so should nothing that they may try to do be impossible for them?’

sultobottom
lirse-n-hgo-Sub-1.P
neand.then
safo=la-shlanguage=IO-3
llomoro-n-kh-onmix.up-Sub-1.P-F
wein.order
ta-ia-njo-n-sh-on-u-sh-kunderstand1-N-understand2-Sub-3-F-DO-3-P
safolanguage
ho-sh,”DDO-3
teni-s-t.say-4-Pst

‘Let’s go down and mix up their language so that they won’t understand their language,” he said.’

vyand
helimeGod
jelehere-s-t-e-sh-kscatter-4-Pst-IO-3-P
iythere
she-llfrom-5
teltewhole
ievy-lworld-Cns
kla-hto-6
vyand
naja-sh-k-otstop-3-P-Pst
vammotogla-no-sh-k-on.build.city-Sub-3-P-F

‘And God scattered them from there over the whole world and they stopped building the city.’

ellyso
vammocity
ge-hPN-6
vavelBabel
fonga-llo-t,be.called-5-Pst
shobecause
iythere
teltewhole
ievyworld
te-shPos-3
safo=la-slanguage=IO-4
llomoro-go-h-tmix.up-Cir-6-Pst
helime,God

‘So the city was called Babel, because there God mixed up the whole world’s language,’

vyand
telte=la-sh-keveryone=IO-3-P
jelehere-ge-h-tscatter-Cir-6-Pst
helimeGod
she-hfrom-6
teltewhole
ievy-lworld-Cns
kla-h.to-6

‘and from there God scattered them all over the world.’

The Dolls

A poem by W. B. Yeats.

vorosho-shik

voroshoto tes vato glill voroshol-shy
moshantoshka mafaglash vy
“we fasashoh” krovash.
vy teltek voroshowh kangask zarol-shy
tantroglashohoshtof we analanlanshohosh,
elly se poshhapa lirel-as lilyshtef,
telte pural kangas iushmaka-zakhopsosh “peiegesh
o-joh stseleswensh
lla hiuh tumna
a i-vy khejjishk
lla klah, omoroshkofkof,
hammopso tstufrapso-vy kezel-joh.”
flor hafash jugwawof vy gufafluwof
elly voroshoto tes y pirel ipeshhesh
a se pirel-wy shne hafastof,
vy hungash shevente grivel glih,
vy hlush hafamna klas,
farala geshe fama-las weliysh,
“tef jellwe, tef jellwe, jellwe-my,
wohaliosht.”

The Dolls

A doll in the doll-maker’s house
Looks at the cradle and bawls:
“That is an insult to us.”
But the oldest of all the dolls,
Who had seen, being kept for show,
Generations of his sort,
Out-screams the whole shelf: “Although
There’s not a man can report
Evil of this place,
The man and woman bring
Hither, to our disgrace,
A noisy and filthy thing.”
Hearing him groan and stretch
The doll-maker’s wife is aware
Her husband has heard the wretch,
And crouched by the arm of his chair,
She murmurs into his ear,
Head upon shoulder leant:
“My dear, my dear, O dear,
It was an accident.”

vorosho=sh-i-kdoll=3-S-P

‘The dolls’

voroshotodollmaker
te-sPOS-4
vatohouse
gli-llat-5
vorosho-l=sh-ydoll-Cns=3-S

‘A doll in the dollmaker’s house’

moshantoshkacradle
mafagla-shlook-3
vyand

‘looks at the cradle and’

“wethat
fasa-sh-o-h”insult-3-IO-1.P
krova-sh.shout-3

‘cries “that is an insult to us”’

vyand
telte-kall-P
vorosho-w-hdoll-Cns-P
kanga-s-kthan-4-P
zaro-l=sh-yold-Cns=3-P

‘and the oldest of all the dolls

tantrogla-sh-oho-sh-t-ofkeep-3-Psv-3-Pst-Cnj
wein.order
analanla-n-sh-oho-sh,show-Sub-3-Psv-3

‘who had been kept to be shown’

ellyso
sethis
poshhapageneration.Pos
lire-l=a-skind-Cns=IO-4
li-ly-sh-t-ef,R-witness-3-Pst-Cnj

‘and so had seen generations of his kind’

teltewhole
pura-lshelf-Cns
kanga-sthan-4
iushmaka=zakhopso-shyell=be.loud-3
“pe-ie-ge-shbe.person-N-Cir-3

‘yells louder than the whole shelf “there is no one”’

o=jo-hevil=DO-6
stseleswe-n-shcan.report-Sub-3

‘who can report evil’

llahere
hiu-habout-6
tumnabut

‘regarding this place, but’

amale
i=vyfemale=and
khejji-sh-kbring-4-P

‘the man and woman bring’

llahere
kla-h,to-6
omoro-sh-k-o-f-k-of,insult-3-P-IO-1-P-Cnj

‘here, insulting us,’

hammopsonoisy
tstufrapso=vyfilthy=and
keze-l=jo-h.”thing-Cns=DO-6

‘a noisy and filthy thing.”’

flornow
hafa-shhear-3
jugwa-w-ofgroan-4-Cnj
vyand
gufaflu-w-ofstretch-4-Cnj

‘She hears him groan and stretch,’

ellyso
voroshotodollmaker
te-sPos-4
yfemale
pire-lspouse-Cns
ipeshhe-shbe.aware-3

‘so the dollmaker’s wife is aware’

amale
sethis
pire-l=w-yspouse-Cns=4-S
shnewretch
hafa-s-t-of,hear-4-Pst-Cnj

‘that her husband has heard the wretch,’

vyand
hunga-shbend-3
sheventechair
grive-larm-Cns
gli-h,at-6

‘and she bends by the arm of the chair’

vyand
hlu-shmurmur-3
hafamnaear
kla-s,to-4

‘and murmurs in his ear’

faralawhile
geshehead
fama=la-sshoulder=IO-4
weliy-sh,lean-3

‘with her head leant on his shoulder,’

“te-fPos-1
jellwe,dear
te-fPos-1
jellwe,dear
jellwe=m-y,dear=2-S

‘“My dear, my dear, oh dear’

wohalio-sh-t.”be.accident-3-Pst

‘It was an accident.”’

The North Wind and the Sun

An oft-translated fable by Aesop.

relevepe rivel-shy llesti-wi-vy

shut zaiashkagoht relevepe rivel llesti-vy gaha gaiaha kanganos ialopsoshof kho mlekhegeht ehile vy mele mirgel trolallot. kerelleshehesket gallla kitistenshyllen llih khafo hrolos lhy sulopsogoshon ialopsoshof khafo kangas.

relevepe rivel rukhofosht swe lemesh vy kho unlo-shy hlorogoshtoll ehile lemesh mirge shah, tseny kemesht shetinshen.

ne llesty kwipesre-hegzetest vy ehile mrityllet kitistenllyh tseny relevepe rivel tolosogjosht llesty vishehesk ialopsowof.

The North Wind and the Sun

The north wind and the sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveller came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveller take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other.

Then the north wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveller fold his cloak around him; and at last the north wind gave up the attempt.

Then the sun shone out warmly, and immediately the traveller took off his cloak. And so the north wind was obliged to confess that the sun was the stronger of the two.

relevepenorthern
rive-l=sh-ywind-Cns=3.S
llesti=w-i=vysun=4.S=and

‘The North Wind and the Sun’

shu-ttime-Pst
zaiashka-go-h-targue-Cir-6-Pst
relevepenorthern
rive-lwind-Cns
llesti=vysun=and
gahawhich
ga-ia-hawhich1-N-which2
kanga-no-sthan-Sub-4
ialopso-sh-ofbe.strong-3-Cnj

‘Once the north wind and the sun were arguing over which was stronger than which,’

khoas
mlekhe-ge-h-tcome.along-Cir-6-Pst
ehiletraveler
vyand
melegreat
mirge-lcoat-Cns
trola-llo-tbe.covering.Psv-5-Pst

‘when a traveler came along covered in a heavy coat.’

kerelle-sh-ehe-s-k-etdecide-3-L-4-P-Pst
galllawhichever
kitiste-n-sh-y-ll-enmake.remove-Sub-3-DO-5-F
lli-hDDO-6
khafoother
hrolo-sbefore-4

‘The two decided that if one of them should make the traveler take the coat off before the other,’

lhythen
sulopso-go-sh-onagree-Cir-3-F
ialopso-sh-ofbe.strong-3-Cnj
khafoother
kanga-sthan-4

‘they would agree that he was stronger than the other.’

relevepenorthern
rive-lwind-Cnj
rukhofo-sh-tblow-3-Pst
sweability
leme-shaccording.to-3
vy.khobut
unlo=sh-ycontinuing=3.S
hloro-go-sh-t-o-llwrap-Cir-3-Pst-DO-5
ehiletraveler
leme-shaccording.to-3
mirgecoat
sha-h,with-6

‘The north wind blew as hard as he could, but however much he blew, the traveler wrapped the coat around himself more.’

tsenyfinally
keme-sh-tgive.up-3-Pst
sheti-n-sh-entry-Sub-3-F

‘In the end, he gave up trying.’

neand.then
llestysun
kwipesre=hegzete-s-tshine=be.warm-4-Pst
vyand
ehiletraveler
mrity-lle-tact.immediately-5-Pst
kitirse-n-ll-y-hremove-Sub-5-DO-6

‘Then, the sun shone out warmly and the traveler immediately took it off.’

tsenyfinally
relevepenorthern
rive-lwind-Cns
tolosogjo-sh-tmust.acknowledge-3-Pst
llestysun
vi-sh-ehe-s-kin-3-L-4-P
ialopso-w-ofbe.strong-4-Cnj

‘In the end, the northern wind had to admit that the sun was the stronger of the two of them.’

The Peasant and the Eagle

Another of Aesop’s fables.

shalopo-shy hasa-wi-vy

hasa-jos inhemzestef hlorolio shall malhogoh shalopo vy melesht nwile-jos snekinesht elly khejeshtis. peiehpest noparo-lash shyiyhyerenest tseny sho mafast sheveshtef nyiylekhepse grivel vengill ne ashast klash ne regzy shiyst geshe shesh telek shask. shovorsosht we jelenshens vy kho tanostull. rishtyll ne hwelhesht leme gevel klah ne mafasht grive sheveshtef vengill ishy-kfallotof elly hasa-las llilesh ifel ogzosht.

The Peasant and the Eagle

A peasant found an eagle captured in a trap, and much admiring the bird, set him free. The eagle did not prove ungrateful to his deliverer, for seeing the peasant sitting under a wall which was not safe, he flew toward him and with his talons snatched a bundle from his head. When the peasant rose in pursuit, the eagle let the bundle fall again. Taking it up, the man returned to the same place, to find that the wall under which he had been sitting had fallen to pieces; and he marveled at the service rendered him by the eagle.

shalopo=sh-ypeasant=3-S
hasa=w-i=vyeagle=4-S=and

‘The Peasant and the Eagle’

hasa=jo-seagle=DO-4
inhemze-s-t-eftrap.Psv-4-Pst-Cnj
hloroliotrap
sha-llby-5
malho-go-hfind-Cir-6
shalopopeasant

‘A peasant found an eagle caught in a trap’

vyand
mele-sh-tdo.a.lot-3-Pst
nwile=jo-sbird=DO-4
sneki-ne-sh-tadmire-Sub-3-Pst
ellyso
kheje-sh-t-i-s.free-3-Pst-DO-4

‘and he much admired the bird, so he freed it’

p-e-ie-hpe-s-tN-turn.out1-N-turn.out2-4-Pst
noparo=la-shdeliverer=IO-3
shy-iy-hyere-ne-s-tshow.gratitude1-N-show.gratitude2-Sub-4-Pst

‘It did not turn out to be ungrateful to the deliverer’

tseny.shofor
mafa-s-tsee-4-Pst
sheve-sh-t-efsit-3-Pst-Cnj
ny-iy-lekhepsesound1-N-sound2
grive-lwall-Cns
vengi-llin.front.of-5

‘for he saw him sitting in front of an unsound wall’

neand.then
asha-s-tfly-4-Pst
kla-shto-3
neand.then
regzybundle
shiy-s-ttake-4-Pst
geshehead
she-shfrom-3
tele-kfoot-P
sha-s-k.with-4-P

‘and flew to him, and snatched a bundle from his head with its feet’

shovorso-sh-tget.up-3-Pst
wein.order.to
jele-n-sh-en-schase-Sub-3-F-DO.4
vy.khobut
tano-s-t-u-ll.drop-4-Pst-DO-5

‘When he rose to chase it, it dropped it’

ri-sh-t-y-lltake-3-Pst-DO-5
neand.then
hwelhe-sh-treturn-3-Pst
lemesame
geve-lplace-Cns
kla-hto-6

‘He took it, and then returned to the same place’

neand.then
mafa-sh-tsee-3-Pst
grivewall
sheve-sh-t-efsit-3-Pst-Cnj
vengi-llin.front.of-5
ishy=kfa-llo-t-offall=break-5-Pst-Cnj

‘and then he saw that the wall he had been sitting in front of had fallen and broken’

ellyso
hasa=la-seagle=IO-4
llile-shfor-3
ife-lhelp-Cns
ogzo-sh-t.marvel-3-Pst

‘so he marveled at the help he’d received from the eagle’

The Lion In Love

Another of Aesop’s fables.

tejishhe zajjal-shy

shut flesty khiljel-as tejishhersegeht zajja ne sekhek ewel-allok entisht fisrenshenes. zalaroshholloht kheshenllek. keierelleht zajja-lash hazo ronllok iatla keierelleht gepezwe fewsil-ash poloronllok. vorosho tenigeht mesy “meleh emepsenh shinme sham iatla joh hazo hllish vy kushkash galok glilymp elly humnapso-nretih unakomnoshof tejily zalal sham. fezif shinmenf khasmuk kityrsemehnemp vy warzumnak khigymehnemp lhy pllerepse-egzefken jupsokhmof shinme hom.” zajja tejishhesht melre khasmuk tovashohoshkot vy kevrek warzumnawh khigysheheshket. tumna llefesht kashku khiljel jos ewek pullanshot vy kho hofo hefelleht khinje ioyopah putrozallohtof unakonshullok swe lemesh.

The Lion In Love

A lion once fell in love with a beautiful maiden and proposed marriage to her parents. The old people did not know what to say. They did not like to give their daughter to the lion, yet they did not wish to enrage the King of Beasts. At last the father said: “We feel highly honored by your majesty’s proposal, but you see our daughter is a tender young thing, and we fear that in the vehemence of your affection you might possibly do her some injury. Might I venture to suggest that your majesty should have your claws removed, and your teeth extracted, then we would gladly consider your proposal again.” The lion was so much in love that he had his claws trimmed and his big teeth taken out. But when he came again to the parents of the young girl they simply laughed in his face, and bade him do his worst.

tejishhein.love
zajja-l=sh-ylion-Cns=3-S

‘The Enamored Lion’

shu-ttime-Pst
flestybeautiful
khilje-l=a-swoman-Cns=IO-4
tejishherse-ge-h-tfall.in.love-Cir-6-Pst
zajjalion

‘A lion once fell in love with a beautiful woman,’

neand.then
sekhe-kthat-P
ewe-l=a-llo-kparent-Cns=IO-5-P
enti-sh-trequest-3-Pst
fisre-n-sh-en-e-s.marry-Sub-3-F-IO-4

‘and asked her parents if he could marry her.’

zalaroshho-llo-h-tbe.at.a.loss-5-P-Pst
kheshe-n-lle-k.reply-Sub-5-P
ke-ie-re-lle-h-twant1-N-want2-5-P-Pst
zajja=la-shlion=IO-3
hazochild
ro-n-llo-kgive-Sub-5-P

‘They didn’t know what to say. They didn’t want to give their daughter to the lion’

iatlabut
ke-ie-re-lle-h-twant1-N-want2-5-P-Pst
gepezwerelating.to.animal
fewsi-l=a-shmonarch-P=IO-3
poloro-n-llo-k.anger-Sub-5-P

‘but they didn’t want to anger the king of animals.’

voroshoend
teni-ge-h-tsay-Cir-5-Pst
mesyfather
“mele-hdo.much-1.P
emepse-n-hbe.honored-Sub-1.P
shinmeproposing
sha-mby-2

‘Eventually, the father said “We are very honored by your proposal’

iatlabut
jo-hPos-1.P
hazochild
hlli-shbe.tender-3
vyand
kushka-shbe.young-3
galo-kpupil-P
glily-m-pon-2-P

‘but our daughter is tender and young, as you see’

ellyso
humnapso=nreti-hfear=think.maybe-1.P
unako-m-no-sh-ofharm-2-F-DO.3-Cnj
tejilyat.love
zala-lintensity-Cns
sha-m.by-2

‘so we fear that with the intensity of your love, you might harm her.’

fezi-fdare-1
shinme-n-fpropose-Sub-1
khasmu-kclaw-P
kityrse-m-eh-ne-m-premove-2-Psv-Sub-2-P
vyand
warzumna-ktooth-P
khigy-m-eh-ne-m-pextract-2-Psv-Sub-2-P

‘I dare propose that your claws be removed and your teeth be extracted,’

lhythen
pllerepse=egze-f-k-enbe.glad=redo-1-P-F
jupso-kh-m-ofconsider-1.P-DO.2-Cnj
shinmeproposing
ho-m.”DDO-2

‘then we will gladly reconsider your proposal.’

zajjalion
tejishhe-sh-tbe.in.love-3-Pst
melreenough.that
khasmu-kclaw-P
tova-sh-oho-sh-k-ottrim-3-Psv-3-P-Pst
vyand
kevre-kbig-P
warzumna-w-htooth-Cns-P
khigy-sh-ehe-sh-k-et.extract-3-Psv-3-P-Pst

‘The lion was so much in love that he had his claws trimmed and his big teeth extracted’

tumnabut
llefe-sh-tdo.again-3-Pst
kashkuyoung
khilje-lwoman-Cns
jo-sPos-4
ewe-kparent-P
pulla-n-sh-otmeet-Sub-3-Pst

‘but he met the young girl’s parents again’

vy.khobut
hofocondescending.laugh
hefe-lle-h-tlaugh.condescendingly-5-P-Pst
khinjeother
io-yo-pa-hincluding1-N-including2-6

‘and they only laughed,’

putroza-llo-h-t-ofbid-5-P-Pst-Cnj
unako-n-sh-u-llo-kharm-Sub-3-DO-5-P
sweability
leme-sh.according.to-3

‘bidding him do them what harm he could.’

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